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  • notesProduction Part Approval Process (PPAP)
    In Quality Management
    PPAP stands for “Production Part Approval Process.” It is a standardized procedure used in the automotive and other manufacturing industries to ensure that a supplier’s production […]
  • notesFailure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
    In Quality Management
    FMEA stands for “Failure Modes and Effects Analysis.” It is a systematic and structured approach used in various industries to identify potential failures, their causes, and their […]
  • notesTheory of Constraints (TOC)
    In 2_Short Notes, Quality Management
    The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is a management philosophy and methodology developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his book “The Goal,” published in 1984. It is a systematic approach to […]
  • notesJust in Time (JIT)
    In Inventory Management
    Just-In-Time (JIT) is a manufacturing and inventory management philosophy that aims to produce and deliver goods or services at the exact moment they are needed in the production process or by the […]
  • notesABC Analysis
    In Inventory Management
    ABC analysis, also known as Pareto analysis or the 80/20 rule, is a widely used inventory management technique that categorizes items based on their relative importance in terms of value or frequency […]
  • notesInventory Management
    In Inventory Management
    Inventory management refers to the process of efficiently and effectively overseeing the acquisition, storage, tracking, and utilization (ASTU) of an organization’s goods or products. It […]
  • notesThe Golden Rule of Negotiation
    In 1_Procurement Insights, Negotiation
    Some of us avoid negotiation, some fear negotiation because they equate it with conflict. They consider it as a clash of the wills, they see it as a fight to the finish, where the biggest bully wins […]
  • notesIron Ore & Pig Iron
    In Steel
    Iron Ore Magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe) Hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe) Fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Pig Iron Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, An intermediate […]
  • notesForecasting Models
    In Forecasting
    Forecasting Models – Forecasting models are one of the many tools businesses use to predict outcomes regarding sales, supply and demand, consumer behavior and more. Four common types of […]
  • notesVendor Rating
    In Vendor Evaluation
    A few ways by which a vendor can be evaluated are listed below- Categorical Method Weighted point Method Cost Ratio Method Vendor-ratingDownload […]
  • notesKraljic Matrix
    In Process, Procurement […]
  • notesFAQ on Materials
    In 2_Short Notes, Material
    Difference between EN8 and MS material EN8 has higher tensile strength than MS material and bit costly. Difference between EN8 and EN8d material EN8 is through-hardened medium carbon steel. It used […]
  • notesHow to Improve Procurement Efficiency
    In 2_Short Notes, Procurement
    1. Identify the inefficient processes/bottleneck in your organizations procurement cycle and work to remove them 2. Rationalize your supply base. Some place you have to increase vendor; some places […]
  • notesVarious Stock Levels
    In Inventory Management
    Safety stock describe a level of extra stock that is maintained to mitigate risk of stock-outs. It acts as a buffer stock in case sales are greater than planned and/or the supplier take more […]
  • notesImport Export Terminologies
    In Import
    Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme allows import of capital goods including spares for pre production, production and post production at zero duty subject to an export obligation of 6 times […]
  • notesSupply Chain Terminologies
    In Procurement
    Procurement refers to the process of identifying, shortlisting, selecting, and acquiring, (ISSA) suitable goods or services from an outside source. Activities like contract management, receiving […]
  • notesFCL and LCL
    In Logistics
    FCL stands for full container load. In FCL shipping, our goods in the container don’t have to share space with shipments from other traders. We pay the total container price, whether or not your […]
  • notes3 Steps to verify Chinese Suppliers
    In 1_Procurement Insights, Global Sourcing
    China accounting for more than 30% of all global manufacturing share. Before starting to work with Chinese supplier it is most important to ensure that they are legitimate and will be able to produce […]
  • notesEight Disciplines (8D)
    In Quality Management
    8D – The 8 disciplines of problem solving – 8 steps to solve difficult, recurring or critical problems. The eight disciplines (8D) model is a problem solving approach. The […]
  • notesFrequently Asked Questions
    In Finance
    What Is Liquidity and Why Is it Important for Firms? Liquidity refers to how easily or efficiently cash can be obtained in order to pay bills and other short-term obligations. Assets that can be […]
  • notesFinancial Tools for Supplier Risk Assessment
    In Finance
    To ensure that our suppliers are financially healthy we need to keep checking up some of the financial areas of the supplier. It’s essential to conduct financial assessments on selected suppliers […]
  • notesLDPE Vs HDPE
    In Polymer
    Low density polyethylene (LDPE). This clear or translucent plastic exhibits flexibility, chemical resistance, and waterproofing capabilities. It is used in the manufacture of a wide range of […]
  • notesForging
    In Forging
    Forging is a metal shaping technique using compressive localized forces. commonly performed with the help of forging presses or hammering tools powered by either electricity, hydraulics or compressed […]
  • notesHot Chamber Vs Cold Chamber
    In Casting
    Cold chamber die casting is a preferred manufacturing process for metals that have high melting points like metal alloys of aluminium, brass and copper. Cold chamber machinery requires additional […]
  • notesCorrugated Box Testing Methods
    In Packaging
    9 Corrugated Box Testing Methods to Ensure Packaging Quality: Bursting Strength Test Edge Crush Test 2 Single Water Resistance of the Gluing Cobb Sizing Tester Paper Grammage and Thickness Puncture […]
  • notesPipe Vs Tube
    In Products
    Pipes are normally used to transport gasses or liquids making it important to know the capacity. Knowing how much can flow through the pipe is key. Tubes are generally used in structural application […]
  • notesPaper & Box Quality
    In Packaging
    Bursting Strength The bursting strength of a material is termed as the strength of the material to resist any type of rupture force that is applied on the material from a uniform direction and can […]
  • notesSourcing Cycle
    In Strategic Sourcing
    1 Recognition of Need Needs Vs Wants 2 Understanding / Development of Specification – Technical & Performance requirement / Quantity / Quality / Delivery / Packaging / Service / Budget 3 […]
  • notesTool Room Materials
    In Steel
    C45 [EN8 / 1045] – medium carbon steel EN24 / ISO 683-18 34CrNiMo6 – high tensile alloy steel Wear resistance, used in gears, pinions, shafts, and spindles, Die casting and hot metal […]
  • notesHardness Testing
    In Quality Management
    The ability of a material to resist permanent indentation is known as hardness. Brinell Hardness Test During this test, an accurately controlled force is maintained when an indenter, generally a […]
  • notesSupplier Evaluation
    In Vendor Evaluation
    Checklist for evaluation of potential supplier – 1. Competency: Capabilities assessment – measurement against our requirement. 2. Capacity: Supplier’s available resources to meet […]
  • notesPump & Motor
    In Products
    A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action, typically converted from electrical energy into Hydraulic energy. Pumps […]
  • notesBronze
    In Copper
    Bronze is an alloy that consists primarily of copper with the addition of tin & sometime arsenic, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and silicon. All of these ingredients produce an alloy much […]
  • notesCopper and Copper Alloys
    In Copper
    There are more than 400 copper alloys, each with a unique combination of properties, to suit many applications, manufacturing processes and environments. Pure copper has the best electrical and […]
  • notesAluminium Alloys
    In Aluminium
    Aluminum alloys – Aluminum (Al) + alloying elements like copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, tin and zinc. There are mainly two type of Aluminum alloys, casting alloys and wrought alloys. […]
  • notesSteel Numbering Systems
    In Steel
    There are two major numbering systems used by the steel industry, the first developed by the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI), and the second by the Society of Automotive […]
  • notesTool Steel
    In Steel
    Tool steels comprise carbide-forming elements such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten in different combinations. They also contain cobalt or nickel which improves their high-temperature […]
  • notesStainless Steel
    In Steel
    Stainless steel is an alloy of Iron with a minimum of 10.5% Chromium (typically between 10-20%). Chromium produces a thin layer of oxide on the surface of the steel known as the ‘passive layer’. This […]
  • notesAlloy Steel
    In Steel
    Alloy steel is a steel that has had small amounts of one or more alloying elements (other than carbon) such as such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum added. This […]
  • notesValves and its 5 Major Functions
    In Products
    What are Valves? Valves are type of mechanical devices that controls the flow and pressure within a system or process. They are important components of a piping system that flows liquids, gases, […]
  • notesWhat is Bearing & It’s application?
    In Products
    Bearings is a mechanical device that help to reduce friction between rotating shaft or linear bodies.Ball bearings have spherical rolling elements and are used for lower load applications, […]
  • notesSupplier Scorecard
    In Strategic Sourcing, Vendor Evaluation
    Supplier Scorecard is we used to measure suppliers, and to give qualified or certified status to suppliers. Ideally, The best scoring suppliers per commodity group would get more share in the order. […]
  • notesSteel
    In Steel
    According to the American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI), Steel can be categorized into four basic groups based on the chemical compositions: Carbon Steel | Alloy Steel | Stainless Steel | Tool […]
  • notesProcurement Saving Techniques
    In Cost Savings
    Review, Aggregate and Consolidate Purchase Requirements & Deliveries Review and Renegotiate existing contracts based Total Cost Avoid/Reduce Maverick Spend Optimize Supplier Base, Inventory, […]
  • notesCasting Defects
    In Casting Defects are common phenomenon in any engineering process. There is some limitation in any process which causes defects. Proper designing and moulding can […]
  • notesCast Iron – Types & Application
    In Cast Iron, Material Cast iron is a ferrous alloy that is made by re-melting pig iron in a capola furnace until it […]
  • notesDistributive Vs Integrative Negotiation
    In Negotiation
    There are two opposite types or schools of negotiation: integrative and distributive. Distributive Bargaining Basics It’s a one-time-only occurrence. Except for the deal itself, there is no real […]
  • notesNegotiation Techniques
    In Negotiation
    What is Fact Based Negotiation? Fact-based negotiation is the practice of focusing supplier negotiations on mutually beneficial data on cost structure rather than gamesmanship. […]
  • notesShould Cost Model
    In Cost Savings
    A should cost model is a documented calculation of an estimated price that you create by researching all material costs, labor costs, overhead costs, and profit margins that would apply to an item. […]
  • notes7 QC Tools
    In Quality Management
    List of the 7 QC Tools Cause and Effect Diagram Control Chart Pareto Chart Check Sheet Histogram Scatter Diagram Stratification Cause and Effect Diagram Cause and Effect Diagram also known as […]
  • notesDuctile Cast Iron
    In Cast Iron, Material
    Ductile cast iron is a type of cast iron that is melted with elements such as magnesium or cerium to cause the formation of free graphite nodules or spherulites. The name of ductile iron means that […]