Low Carbon Steel (Mild Steel):
Typically contain 0.04% to 0.30% carbon content. It covers a great diversity of shapes; from Flat Sheet to Structural Beam. Depending on the desired properties needed, other elements are added or increased. For example: Drawing Quality (DQ) – The carbon level is kept low and Aluminum is added, and for Structural Steel the carbon level is higher and the manganese content is increased.
Medium Carbon Steel:
Typically has a carbon range of 0.31% to 0.60%, and a manganese content ranging from .060% to 1.65%. This product is stronger than low carbon steel, and it is more difficult to form, weld and cut. Medium carbon steels are quite often hardened and tempered using heat treatment.
High Carbon Steel:
Commonly known as “carbon tool steel” it typically has a carbon range between 0.61% and 1.50%. High carbon steel is very difficult to cut, bend and weld. Once heat treated it becomes extremely hard and brittle
Alloy steel is a steel that has had small amounts of one or more alloying elements (other than carbon) such as such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum added. This produces specific properties that are not found in regular carbon steel. Alloy steels are workhorses of industry because of their economical cost, wide availability, ease of processing, and good mechanical properties. Alloy steels are generally more responsive to heat and mechanical treatments than carbon steels.
Tool steels comprise carbide-forming elements such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten in different combinations. They also contain cobalt or nickel which improves their high-temperature performance. They are generally heat-treated to improve the hardness and used for stamping, forming, shearing and cutting metals and forming of plastics. They are classified according to their composition and properties into various categories.
Tools steels fall into three basic categories:
Cold-work steels are further subdivided into:
Hot work steels are subdivided into:
High-speed tool steels are divided into:
Other types of tool steels include:
The following table shows the composition limits of various types of tool steels.
C40 / EN8
C 0.3-0.45 & Mn 0.6-0.9